On this post we explain what idempotent matrices are. We also show you several examples of this type of matrix so that you understand it perfectly. Furthermore you will find the formula to calculate an idempotent matrix and, finally, all the properties of idempotent matrices.
Table of Contents
What is an idempotent matrix?
The definition of idempotent matrix is as follows:
Therefore, any power of an idempotent matrix is equal to the matrix itself, regardless of the exponent:
In fact, this type of matrix receives this name because in mathematics idempotence is a property of certain operations that means that the same result is always obtained regardless of the number of times it is performed.
Examples of idempotent matrices
Once we know the concept of the idempotent matrix, we are going to see some examples of different dimensions:
Example of 2×2 idempotent matrix
The following square matrix of dimension 2×2 is idempotent:
To check whether it is an idempotent matrix, we calculate its square:
The result is identical, so it is shown that the matrix is idempotent.
Example of 3×3 idempotent matrix
The following square matrix of order 3 is idempotent:
To verify that it really is an idempotent matrix, we raise the matrix to 2:
The result is the same as the original matrix, so the idempotency of the matrix is proven.
Formula for a 2×2 idempotent matrix
Here is the formula to obtain an idempotent matrix. The proof of the formula is a bit tedious, so we give you directly the formula to find an idempotent matrix:
So the elements of the secondary diagonal of an idempotent matrix can be any as long as the condition is met, and the numbers of the main diagonal must be y
In addition to all the matrices described by this formula, we must add the identity matrix of order 2, which is also an idempotent matrix despite not meeting the formula.
Properties of idempotent matrices
Idempotent matrices have the following characteristics:
- The determinant of an idempotent matrix is always equal to 0 or 1.
- Except for the Identity matrix, all other idempotent matrices are singular or degenerate matrices.
- Any idempotent matrix is a diagonalizable matrix, and its eigenvalues are always 0 or 1.
- The trace of an idempotent matrix is equal to the rank of the matrix.
- Finally, there is a relationship between idempotent matrices and involutory matrices: the matrix is idempotent if, and only if, the matrix is involutory.